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The Python programming language is a widely used tool for basic research and engineering.  Its rapid rise in popularity is supported by comprehensive, largely open-source, contributions from scientists who use it for their own work.  This short course offers an introduction to Python with examples drawn from physics and astronomy as part of a full semester
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The Python programming language is a widely used tool for basic research and engineering.  Its rapid rise in popularity is supported by comprehensive, largely open-source, contributions from scientists who use it for their own work.  This short course offers an introduction to Python with examples drawn from physics and astronomy.  
[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Research_Methods Research Methods] class.
 
  
The examples are collected [http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples here].
 
  
All the assignments are [http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments here].
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This resource was developed as a component of a
 +
[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Research_Methods Research Methods] class Various examples that may be useful for
 +
developing small Python programs are collected [http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples here]. They are a basis for a few exercises that were assigned during the course are are available [http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments here].
  
Homework should be uploaded [http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/homework here].
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This resource is maintained so that it is reasonable current with the latest releases of Python 3 and component modules.  The code discussed has been tested in Python 3.6, though some pieces of older code may still be lurking, they should be recognizable and easily modified if errors occur.
  
The topics and examples covered are --
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 +
The topics and examples covered --
  
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Programming_for_Physics_and_Astronomy  Why program? Choosing a language.]  
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Programming_for_Physics_and_Astronomy  Why program? Choosing a language.]  
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python Very simple Python]
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python Very simple Python]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Installing_Python_on_your_computer Installing it on your computer]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Installing_Python_on_your_computer Installing it on your computer]
 +
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#IDE.27s_and_Editors_and_Python_environments Editors and environments]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Using_Python_in_real_time Using it in real time]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Using_Python_in_real_time Using it in real time]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Using_Python_code_as_a_standalone_program Using code as a standalone program]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Very_simple_Python#Using_Python_code_as_a_standalone_program Using code as a standalone program]
Line 29: Line 31:
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples Examples]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples Examples]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments Assignments]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments Assignments]
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#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python Graphical User Interfaces with Python]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python#A_Tk_Tutorial A Tk Tutorial]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python#Building_a_Program Building a Program]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python#Interfacing_an_Instrument:_Phidgets Interfacing an Instrument]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python#Events_and_Control_Within_the_User_Interface Events and Control]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphical_User_Interface_with_Python#Widgets Widgets]
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python Graphics with Python]
 
#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python Graphics with Python]
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Installation_of_matplotlib Installation of matplotlib]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Installation_of_matplotlib Matplotlib]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Learning_the_basics_of_2D_data_and_function_plotting Learning the basics of 2D data and function plotting]
 
##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Learning_the_basics_of_2D_data_and_function_plotting Learning the basics of 2D data and function plotting]
##Examples
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Interactive_plotting Interactive plotting]
##Assignments
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#A_little_3D_plotting A little 3D plotting]
#Numpy, Scipy and Scikit
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Graphics_with_Python#Bokeh Bokeh]
##Numpy arrays
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples Examples]
##Numpy math
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments Assignments]
##Scipy interpolation and integration
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#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits NumPy, SciPy and SciKits]
##Scipy statistics
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#NumPy NumPy]
##Examples
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Arrays Arrays]
##Assignments
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Indexing Indexing]
#Images
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Functions_Broadcasting_Over_an_Array Functions and Broadcasting]
##Python Imaging Library - PIL
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Matrix_and_Vector_Math_in_NumPy Matrix and Vector Math]
##Astronomical FITS files with Pyfits
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Fourier_Transforms_in_NumPy Fourier Transforms in NumPy]
##FITS headers
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#SciPy_and_SciKits  SciPy and SciKits]
##Processing and displaying images
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Interpolation Interpolation]
##Scipy and Scikit for image processing
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Integration Integration]
##Examples
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Differentiation Differentiation]
##Assignments
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###[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/NumPy,_SciPy_and_SciKits#Statistics Statistics]
#Data acquisition and processing
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples Examples]
##Real world interfacing
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments Assignments]
##Numerical data from images
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#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy Image processing with Python and SciPy]
##Fourier Transforms
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#Python_Imaging_Library_-_PIL Python Imaging Library - PIL]
##Spectra
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#Images_with_NumPy_and_SciPy Images with NumPy and SciPy]
##Probability and statistics
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#Astronomical_FITS_Files Astronomical FITS Files]
##Examples
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#Other_Processing Other Processing]
##Assignments
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#SciKits SciKits]
#User interfaces
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Image_processing_with_Python_and_SciPy#AstroImageJ_and_Alsvid AstroImageJ and Alsvid]
##Command line and the operating system
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_examples Examples]
##Graphical user interfaces in Python (GUI)
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/Python_assignments Assignments]
##Examples
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#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/User_Interfaces User Interfaces]
##Assignments
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/User_Interfaces#Command_Line_Interfacing_and_Access_to_the_Operating_System  Command Line Interfacing and Access to the Operating System]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/User_Interfaces#Graphical_User_Interface_to_Plotting  Graphical User Interface to Plotting]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/User_Interfaces#Running_a_Bokeh_Server_for_Live_Plotting_of_Python_Data Running a Bokeh Server for LIve Plotting of Python Data]
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##[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/User_Interfaces#Running_a_Server_for_Javascript_in_a_Browser_Engine  Running a Server for Javascript in a Browser Engine]
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#[http://prancer.physics.louisville.edu/astrowiki/index.php/How_to_Create_a_Javascript_Program How to create a javascript program]
 +
 
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 +
These topics may be added to a longer version of this course or as working notes when time allows.
 +
 
 +
#Bayesian methods with Python and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)  analyses
 +
#Real world interfacing
 +
##Instrumentation and communication
 +
##Serial ports
 +
##USB
 +
##Ethernet and TCPIP
 +
#Parallel processing
 +
##Using all the processors (CPUs) in your computer
 +
##Using graphical processing units (GPUs)
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##Artificial intelligence computing with tensor processing units (TPUs)
 
#Working with the web
 
#Working with the web
 
##HTTP servers
 
##HTTP servers
 
##Getting data from servers
 
##Getting data from servers
 
##Sending data to servers
 
##Sending data to servers
##Common gateway interface - CGI
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##Using Python with the Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
##Using Python with CGI  
 
 
##Programming for server-side processing
 
##Programming for server-side processing
##Examples
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#Python and  other languages
##Assignments
 
#Comparing Python to other languages
 
 
##Bash scripting in Unix-like systems
 
##Bash scripting in Unix-like systems
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##Gnu Data Language (GDL) as a replacement for IDL or bridge to Python
 
##Very simple C
 
##Very simple C
##Using Python with other code
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##Connecting Python to the browser engine
##Android for web development
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##Chrome and Firefox for web development
##LabVIEW for instrument control and data analysis
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##Java for astronomical calculations: AstroCC and AstroImageJ
##Java for astronomical calculations: AstroCC
 
##Java for astronomical image processing and photometry: AstroImageJ
 

Latest revision as of 06:41, 17 April 2018

The Python programming language is a widely used tool for basic research and engineering. Its rapid rise in popularity is supported by comprehensive, largely open-source, contributions from scientists who use it for their own work. This short course offers an introduction to Python with examples drawn from physics and astronomy.


This resource was developed as a component of a Research Methods class Various examples that may be useful for developing small Python programs are collected here. They are a basis for a few exercises that were assigned during the course are are available here.

This resource is maintained so that it is reasonable current with the latest releases of Python 3 and component modules. The code discussed has been tested in Python 3.6, though some pieces of older code may still be lurking, they should be recognizable and easily modified if errors occur.


The topics and examples covered --

  1. Why program? Choosing a language.
  2. Very simple Python
    1. Installing it on your computer
    2. Editors and environments
    3. Using it in real time
    4. Using code as a standalone program
    5. Examples
    6. Assignments
  3. Elements of Python programming
    1. Input and output
    2. Data types: numbers and strings
    3. Lists, tuples, dictionaries, and statements
    4. Examples
    5. Assignments
  4. Solving problems with Python
    1. Flow control
    2. Functions
    3. Iteration
    4. Examples
    5. Assignments
  5. Graphical User Interfaces with Python
    1. A Tk Tutorial
    2. Building a Program
    3. Interfacing an Instrument
    4. Events and Control
    5. Widgets
  6. Graphics with Python
    1. Matplotlib
    2. Learning the basics of 2D data and function plotting
    3. Interactive plotting
    4. A little 3D plotting
    5. Bokeh
    6. Examples
    7. Assignments
  7. NumPy, SciPy and SciKits
    1. NumPy
      1. Arrays
      2. Indexing
      3. Functions and Broadcasting
      4. Matrix and Vector Math
      5. Fourier Transforms in NumPy
    2. SciPy and SciKits
      1. Interpolation
      2. Integration
      3. Differentiation
      4. Statistics
    3. Examples
    4. Assignments
  8. Image processing with Python and SciPy
    1. Python Imaging Library - PIL
    2. Images with NumPy and SciPy
    3. Astronomical FITS Files
    4. Other Processing
    5. SciKits
    6. AstroImageJ and Alsvid
    7. Examples
    8. Assignments
  9. User Interfaces
    1. Command Line Interfacing and Access to the Operating System
    2. Graphical User Interface to Plotting
    3. Running a Bokeh Server for LIve Plotting of Python Data
    4. Running a Server for Javascript in a Browser Engine
  10. How to create a javascript program


These topics may be added to a longer version of this course or as working notes when time allows.

  1. Bayesian methods with Python and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analyses
  2. Real world interfacing
    1. Instrumentation and communication
    2. Serial ports
    3. USB
    4. Ethernet and TCPIP
  3. Parallel processing
    1. Using all the processors (CPUs) in your computer
    2. Using graphical processing units (GPUs)
    3. Artificial intelligence computing with tensor processing units (TPUs)
  4. Working with the web
    1. HTTP servers
    2. Getting data from servers
    3. Sending data to servers
    4. Using Python with the Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
    5. Programming for server-side processing
  5. Python and other languages
    1. Bash scripting in Unix-like systems
    2. Gnu Data Language (GDL) as a replacement for IDL or bridge to Python
    3. Very simple C
    4. Connecting Python to the browser engine
    5. Chrome and Firefox for web development
    6. Java for astronomical calculations: AstroCC and AstroImageJ