Begin with Python
In order to get started you will need a local web server. Since most likely you will not have one running that is easily accessible, a simple solution is to use python to provide one for you. Python has a built-in module that will run a server and that can be started with one line of python code.
python -m CGIHTTPServer 8000 1>/dev/null 2>/dev/null &
By using port 8000 the server is distinct from the one on port 80 used for web applications. The site would appear by putting
in a Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox browser window running on the same user account on the same machine. Note the redirects for stdio and stderr to /dev/null keeps output from appearing in the console. The server may be killed by identifying its process ID in Linux with the command
ps -e | grep python
kill -s 9 pid
where "pid" is the ID number found in the first line. Alternatively, if it is the only python process running you may kill it with
For programmers, however, this utility allows development and debugging of web software without the need for a large server.
Add a Directory for a Program
Put each program (think webpage) into its own directory under this top level directory. That way, when you open the browser to localhost:8000 you will see list of directories each containing a separate application. Click on one of those and your application, or its files, will open.
Under that program directory create at a minimum two other subdirectories:
The browser will automatically see a file "index.html" in a directory if that file exists. For development it is best not to use "index.html" as the base file for your application, but instead to use another descriptive name such as "calculator.html" or "orbits.html". Later, if you want it to open without the extra click you can rename it, or in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems create a soft link that points to it with the command line
ln -s calculator.html index.html
The browser will see the index soft link and then open the file it points to. By not having "index.html" in your program directory you will be able to browse other files there, try variants on your program, or inspect code in the browser.
Select a Browser
There are two browsers that are recommended for this type of development, and the choice at least at this beginning stage is a matter of style and convenience. The user interface to development help is different, and actually the "engine" they run is also different. As the web develops, the programmers who create and maintain browsers also change what they can do, and sometimes what they allow the browsers to do.